Castro LL, Kitoko JZ, Xisto DG, Olsen PC, Guedes HLM, Morales MM, Lopes-Pacheco M, Cruz FF, Rocco PRM. Multiple doses of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells induce immunosuppression in experimental asthma. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2020 Feb;9(2):250-260.
In experimental house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma, therapeutic administration of a single dose of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) ameliorates lung inflammation but is unable to reverse remodeling. We hypothesized that multiple doses of MSCs might exert better therapeutic effects by reducing lung inflammation and remodeling but might also result in immunosuppressive effects in experimental asthma. HDM was administered intranasally in C57BL/6 mice. After the last HDM challenge, mice received two or three doses of MSCs (105 cells per day) or saline intravenously. An additional cohort of mice received dexamethasone as a positive control for immunosuppression. Two and three doses of MSCs reduced lung inflammation, levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin; total leukocyte, CD4+ T-cell, and eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; and total leukocyte counts in bone marrow, spleen, and mediastinal lymph nodes. Two and three doses of MSCs also reduced collagen fiber content and transforming growth factor-β levels in lung tissue; however, the three-dose regimen was more effective, and reduced these parameters to control levels, while also decreasing α-actin content in lung tissue. Two and three doses of MSCs improved lung mechanics. Dexamethasone, two and three doses of MSCs similarly increased galectin levels, but only the three-dose regimen increased CD39 levels in the thymus. Dexamethasone and the three-dose, but not the two-dose regimen, also increased levels of programmed death receptor-1 and IL-10, while reducing CD4+CD8low cell percentage in the thymus. In conclusion, multiple doses of MSCs reduced lung inflammation and remodeling while causing immunosuppression in HDM-induced allergic asthma.